Jim Michalak's Boat Designs
118 E Randall, Lebanon, IL 62254
A page of boat designs and essays.
(1 January 2016) This issue will continue sailing for nonsailors. The 15 January 2016 issue will continue the topic.
THE BOOK IS OUT!
BOATBUILDING FOR BEGINNERS (AND BEYOND)is out now, written by me and edited by Garth Battista of Breakaway Books. You might find it at your bookstore. If not check it out at the....
ON LINE CATALOG OF MY PLANS...
...which can now be found at Duckworks Magazine. You order with a shopping cart set up and pay with credit cards or by Paypal. Then Duckworks sends me an email about the order and then I send the plans right from me to you.
Bob Holley takes his new Moby Dink out for a spin. Now, on to a larger project!
118 E Randall,
Lebanon, IL 62254
Send $1 for info on 20 boats.
Sailing For Nonsailors 2
SAILING TO WINDWARD...
I'm going to start the sailing lessons with thoughts about sailing to windward. I know there is a saying that "gentlemen never sail to windward" but the rest of us usually have to. The reason it is important is that you often spend most of your time sailing to windward. In general your progress to windward is only one half or one third that of sailing downwind in the same breeze. For example, if you had four hours available to you and had to start by sailing downwind, you might sail downwind no more than an hour, then turn around to slog back into the wind for the next three hours.
FIRST, GET PREPARED...
Don't take a new sailboat to a lake without first setting it up in your yard, sail and all. Do it several times and make sure everything is in working order. I know the neighbors will think you are nuts but at least you will be close to your tools and materials to make needed changes. Hey! One of the first homemade boats I ever saw was a small catamaran at Carlyle Lake. But I never got to see it sail because the builder, after having assembled the project on the beach, found he had left his sail 60 miles away back home!
As you practice setting up the rig, take careful note of sail trim. By that I mean to get the sail shaped as well as possible. That almost always means setting the halyard and tack lines really tight to eliminate wrinkles in the sail. That is usually easier for a triangular sail than for a four sided sail like a lug or gaff sail. And remember, the stresses in the sail change with wind speed and loading in the boat. So a sail set up in light winds may not do well in high winds. I always prefer to set the sail too tightly and then relax things later if required. Almost everything conspires to relax the tightness of your rig as you sail.
Remember this picture from an issue a while back. If you have a lug or gaff sail try for the "good" girt.
Here is a photo of Jerry Scott's IMB on its first sail:
This sail is set up about perfectly. There seems to be little twist to the sail which always harms the sail's drive. There is a very small girt running from the throat towards the clew. I'd bet that girt totally disappears sailing on the other tack where the yard and sail will not drape over the mast.
Here is something else that is very important to check in these dry tests: Make sure all your main sheet, which is the line which controls the boom, is easily at hand when you are seated properly in the boat.
By the way, even in these dry tests the boat can capsize, especially since you may not have any crew weight in the boat. I've heard of large boats being blown off their trailers when the skipper raised the sails in a dry test.
Lastly, keep tinkering with things until you are satisfied. I guarantee that any little problem you might have in the back yard could be a big problem on the water.
NOW CHECK THE WEATHER...
The grand breeze that makes the big boats go fast is not what you want. The best wind to test almost any small sailboat is about 7 knots. Lighter is better than stronger although once the wind gets below about 5 knots some boats will be sluggish to the point where they may not steer well and certainly won't be interesting to sail. A lot of boats will have enough sail to capsize a new skipper if the wind gets over about 10 knots and often the water can start getting rough in that wind.
I know that doesn't sound like much of a window, 5 knots is too little and 10 knots too much. Here is why that is true. The force on the sails is proportional to the square of the wind speed. So if you double the wind speed from 5 to 10, the force on the sail will go up by a factor of 4. If the wind gusts from 5 to 15, the force on the sail will jump by a factor of 9. It's a big change.
My own feeling is that good wind conditions are so important to a new solo sailor that they are worth waiting for and taking a day off from work to capture. Listen to the NOAA radio in your area for the forecast and for the actual winds. When conditions are just right, call in sick and go sailing. Don't show up for work the next day with a fabulous tan.
When you are learning to sail alone, don't do things that could add pressure to the situation, like taking along a group of non sailors or entering a race.
LAUNCHING TO WINDWARD...
I think launching a boat to windward off a shore is one of the most difficult things to do. One advantage of launching into the wind is that if things go wrong you will get blown back to where you started!
I'm assuming you have a boat small enough to push off the shore. As we go along I'll update the text to suggest how to deal with a larger boat.
Actually I don't recall ever seeing the following description in textbooks. I think the textbooks all start with the assumption that you are launching from a dock or from anchor.
First lets start at A, with the boat completely set up on the beach. Have it facing directly into the wind with the sail flapping in the breeze. Make sure all is ready, the sail tightened to its best trim, the rudder and board (leeboard, daggerboard, or centerboard) all ready to be dropped or pushed into position. Also make sure that any seating areas are prepared, all the clutter cleared away and the mainsheet loose and not underfoot or fanny. If you are sitting on cushions make sure they are in place. The point is that once in the water everything has to be ready to go in a few seconds.
Next you have to push the boat out into the water to position B. Here the water must be deep enough to get your rudder and board almost all the way down. She is still pointed into the wind. You can often walk a small boat out this deep and still hop in. My favorite way of getting to B is by getting the boat out deep enough to float, jump in, grab an oar and push out. With each push of the oar you will get a feel for the depth of the water.
Once in B make sure the rudder and board are pretty well down, make sure there is no clutter in the boat in your way, especially that the main sheet is free, and get seated.
Give the boat one last push or give a flip to the rudder to turn the boat 90 degrees to the wind as in position C. Pull in on the sheet a bit to fill the sail and the boat should move forward. Here is the reason for all this posturing: A boat can't sail to windward without a bit of forward speed. The rudder usually needs about 1 mph steerage speed to be effective. The board usually needs a little more, especially as the boat is turned to windward and the side loading caused by the sail becomes significant. That is why you arrange things to get speed right off the bat and you make sure the rudder and board are down. (Never tie or cleat the main sheet, at least not while you are learning, and never in blustery winds. Hold it in your hand. You will be able to feel every tug of the wind.)
All this has to be done in a few seconds or you will get blown back to shore. I've always shown weighted rudders on my boats for that reason - they take care of themselves. Rudders with wingnuts don't work when launching this way because the skipper has to hang himself off the stern and fiddle with the thing just when he has to take care of the sail and the board all in a few seconds.
Once the boat is moving and things are in order, turn to about 50 degrees from the wind. Pull in on the sheet until you feel you have maximized your speed. One of the best ways to check your speed is to look at your wake. "Feeling" speed without looking at the wake can be deceptive - you can feel yourself blasting along but when you look at the wake you find yourself creeping along, not moving at all, or maybe even going backwards!
Continue on in that direction and double check your rudder and board to make sure they are down all the way. Check your sail trim for any gross errors. If there is a gross error return to shore and fix it. I've seen lug sails hoisted with the yard on one side of the mast and the boom on the other side! The most likely error will be twisting of the sail that is limiting your forward drive. Often problems like that are impossible to fix while afloat in a small boat. You can't leave the tiller to fix things. We all have plans to run the control lines into the cockpit for easy handling but the longer control lines themselves would contribute greatly to the sail twist - longer lines stretch more.
(In a large boat the usual procedure is to run the boat under motor straight into the wind as the sails are hoisted, effectively putting it into position B. Once the sails are up the boat is turned to about 60 degrees off the wind with the motor still running, the sheets tightened to fill the sails. Once all is in order the motor is shut off and raised, assuming it is an outboard. Trying to sail with the outboard down will result in a very slow and unresponsive boat.)
You're sailing to windward - almost...
Most low tech boats aren't going to sail much closer to the wind than about 50 degrees. To get to a goal straight to windward you need to zigzag towards it. "Tacking" like this:
You can see why sailing to a place to windward takes a lot longer than going downwind. Even if the boat were as fast close hauled to windward as downwind, which is usually not true, the zigzag tacking makes the actual path a lot longer. If you were tacking 60 degrees to each side of the wind that path would be twice the straight line distance. If you could tack 45 degrees to each side the path would be 1.4 times the straight distance, so you can see the value of a boat that is close winded. But a boat going 60 degrees off the wind can be a lot faster than the same boat at 45 degrees off the wind. So a lot of experimentation is in order.
I'm usually in favor of sailing about 60 degrees off the wind for two reasons. First the effect of waves, especially on a low tech hull, is to slow the boat a lot. Usually the waves are perpendicular to the wind so the closer you sail to the wind, the harder you hit those waves. Secondly, if you are sailing in shifting winds, very common where I live, sailing really close to the wind makes for a lot of work. If you sail 45 degrees to the wind and the wind shifts 15 degrees, you will come to a full stop if you don't swerve to hold the angle. But at 60 degrees off the wind, that wind shift will still gives you forward thrust and you can hold course.
Sailing really close the wind is called "pinching" and usually there is little future in it because you don't go fast at all. It can come in handy sometimes when trying to clear a fixed object.
One thing to keep in mind as you tack is that the sails produce no forward thrust as you swing through the wind so the maneuver is done with momentum. You must have enough forward speed to get through to the other side. Shallow light flat bottomed boats and catamarans are the worst in that they lose momentum quickly. Rough water really can make tacking a challenge in that case and really rough water can make tacking impossible.
Here is how to tack a small boat. Get settled on the current tack at good speed and make sure all is in order, rudder and board down, no clutter in the boat, sheet free and not under you. Smoothly and quickly deflect the tiller about 40 degrees to rotate the boat through the eye of the wind and onto the other tack. As you go through the wind you will have to shift your weight over to the other side of the boat to keep the boat level or heeled correctly (most boats sail best with about 15 degrees of heel). Sails like the ones I draw are "self tacking" meaning they require no handling as you rotate the boat. Simply keep the mainsheet in hand at the same position. Once on the new tack pick up a little speed and let everything settle down.
HERE ARE A FEW THINGS THAT CAN GO WRONG...
You can get the mainsheet wrapped around something, including yourself, or you might end up sitting on it. Always make sure it is free and in a condition that allows you to release it quickly.
You can get overpowered by a gust of wind. If you do nothing you might capsize. Release the mainsheet and turn into the wind. Both of those actions will depower the sail. Try to keep the boat moving forward, though. Remember that if you stop completely the rudder will give you no control.
The rudder and board can pop up. Both will result is sloppy handling and the inability to complete the tack. Keep an eye on them and if the boat starts to handle oddly always check them first.
The boat won't complete the tack, stalling before getting through the wind and falling back on the original tack. This is usually called "missing stays" for some reason. First check to see that the rudder and leeboard are all the way down. Then go back on the original tack, gather A LOT of speed and try again being sure to move the rudder quickly and smoothly and with a good amount of deflection. A boat with a shallow hull and a deep narrow leeboard will spin like a top given half a chance.
The boat won't tack no matter what! This is almost always a sign that the sail/board alignment is not correct. In particular the sail is usually too far forward or the leeboard too far aft. We designers try to get it close but these items can require some fine tuning. Most likely this will mean a trip back to the shop to fix.
Sometimes a boat will go "in irons". This usually happens while pinching but could also happen while tacking. What happens is that the boat stops just short of windward and sticks there. With no speed your rudder will not be effective and some boats become quite stable in this condition and you sort of feel trapped. My first boat was a Hobie 16 with no jib and we spent about a half year in irons. With a little boat you can often get out of irons by taking an oar and twisting the boat to a new heading. The classic fix is to let the boat build up some speed in reverse, which it will usually want to do. Then you pull the boom to windward while you push the tiller to leeward, the result being the boat wanting to rotate around the rudder to point downwind. Then you let the boom swing out to leeward and head off downwind to gather speed, get steerage and try again.
One last thing to check as you sail to windward in a new boat is the feel of the "helm". In a well balanced boat the tiller should be tugging on your hand a bit as you sit to windward. If you let go the the tiller, it will swing away from you and the boat will head up into the wind and stall. That is called a slight "weather helm" and is ideal. Too much weather helm can wear you out, pulling on you all the time. If you have too much weather helm you can usually fix it by shifting the sail forward a slight amount, or shifting the board aft.
If the tiller pushes on your hand as you sit to windward, you have "lee helm". If you let go of the tiller, the tiller swings towards you and the boat starts to head downwind. Lee helm is considered unsafe and is usually harmful to windward sailing efficiency. But the feel of the boat can change a lot with different wind speeds, in particular the more a boat heels the more weather helm develops. A SMALL AMOUNT OF LEE HELM IS VERY COMMON IN VERY LIGHT WINDS. The cure for lee helm is to move the sail area aft or move the board forward.
I'll show some finer points about sailing on reaches and runs.
OLIVEOYL, Cabin Sailboat, 15' X 6', 500 pounds empty
OliveOyl was designed for someone who likeD AF3 but wanted more cabin room and comfort, but not more length. So I actually had some AF4breve drawings handy when I drew the lines for the new boat. Although Olive is the same length as AF3 the cabin is deeper and the bottom a foot wider. One thing the owner did not want, which made the larger cabin possible, was a large cockpit. So I've drawn a bridge deck which extends into the cockpit, reducing foot space there, and also just borrowed length from the cockpit and put it in the cabin. So the floor length in the cabin is over 8'long but you will probably sleep with your feet stuck under the bridge deck. I suppose the downside is that the cockpit is less than 5' long so two adults would fill it. I am guessing an empty weight of 500 pounds but it will take 2000 pounds to put its stem in the water so she should take a fair load.
I suppose I've learned a bit since I drew AF3 a while back. One thing I've learned is that when beached a boat like this is much easier to board if the bow is not too high, thus on this boat I've cut down the bow enough so you can sit on it anD swing your legs around right into the cabin entry in the bulkhead, I hope. The owner did not care about that and I don't think she beaches much in her area.
Now, the owner wanted a conventional cabin with sliding hatches so I drew that. And with it went a mast mounted on a tabernacle. I drew the mast off center as I normally do, attaching it to one of the main cabin deck beams. That moves it out of the center of the boat where you will be sleeping. But this boat could be simpler if it had my usual open slot top with a one piece mast. Such a layout would be a lot better I think for a boat which would be sailed off a beach too since it would allow the skipper to hop on the bow after pushing off, and then run upright back to the cockpit. As is he would have to creep down and tHrough the cabin or go over the cabin but I should warn you that, with AF3 at least, standing on the cabin top is an invitation for capsize. After all, these are not large boats.
The rig shown is pretty much right out of the AF3 experience, in particular with AF3's balanced lug rig. The spars are short and cheap and the mast short enough that the tabernacle won't be required if the open slot top is used.
But I doubt if OliveOyl would stay with an AF3 in a race. She has the same rig but she is wider, deeper and heavier and bound to be slower. On the other hand she is a much better overnighter since the AF3 has a minimal cabin suited for a backpacker.
In a lot of ways I think OliveOyl is more of a shortened Normsboat and if you don't mind the extra length and the weight and cost that go with the extra length, Normsboat would be I think a lot more boat for the buck.
Conventional nail and glue construction. She needs seven sheets of 1/4" plywood, two sheets of 3/8" ply, and four sheets of 1/2" ply.
Prototype plans for OliveOyl are $35.
Some of you may know that in addition to the one buck catalog which now contains 20 "done" boats, I offer another catalog of 20 unbuilt prototypes. The buck catalog has on its last page a list and brief description of the boats currently in the Catalog of Prototypes. That catalog also contains some articles that I wrote for Messing About In Boats and Boatbuilder magazines. The Catalog of Prototypes costs $3. The both together amount to 50 pages for $4, an offer you may have seen in Woodenboat ads. Payment must be in US funds. The banks here won't accept anything else. (I've got a little stash of foreign currency that I can admire but not spend.) I'm way too small for credit cards.
We have a Picara finished by Ken Giles, past Mayfly16 master, and into its trials. The hull was built by Vincent Lavender in Massachusetts. There have been other Picaras finished in the past but I never got a sailing report for them...
And the Vole in New York is Garth Battista's of www.breakawaybooks.com, printer of my book and Max's old outboard book and many other fine sports books. Beautiful job! Garth is using a small lug rig for sail, not the sharpie sprit sail shown on the plans, so I will continue to carry the design as a prototype boat. But he has used it extensively on his Bahamas trip towed behind his Cormorant. Sort of like having a compact car towed behind an RV.
And a Deansbox seen in Texas:
Another prototype Twister is well along:
And the first D'arcy Bryn is to the point the builder can sit and relax in it and imagine boating. You can follow the builder's progress at http://moffitt1.wordpress.com/ ....
The first Jukebox3 is on the (cold) water. The mast is a bit too short - always make your mast too long. A bit more testing will be nice...
A brave soul has started a Robbsboat. He has a builder's blog at http://tomsrobbsboat.blogspot.com. (OOPS! He found a mistake in the side bevels of bulkhead5, says 20 degrees but should be 10 degrees.) He is doing the windows now...
AN INDEX OF PAST ISSUES
THE WAY BACK ISSUES RETURN!
MANY THANKS TO CANADIAN READER GAETAN JETTE WHO NOT ONLY SAVED THEM FROM THE 1997 BEGINNING BUT ALSO PUT TOGETHER AN EXCELLENT INDEX PAGE TO SORT THEM OUT....
THE WAY BACK ISSUES
15jan15, Knockdown Recovery, Dockbox
1feb15, Mike Monies, Laguna
15feb15, Cartopping, IMB
1mar15, WeeVee Lessons, Vole
15mar15, Bulkhead Bevels, Frolic2
1apr15, Capsize Lessons, Riverrunner
15apr15, Hollow Spars, Slam Dink
1may15, Boat Costs, Blobster
15may15, Small Boat Rudders, Roar2
1jun15, Emergency Flotation, RB42
15jun15, Thailand Mixer Cruise, Mixer
1jul15, Rend Lake 2015, Musicbox3
15jul15, Box Boat Stability, Mikesboat
1aug15, Taped Joints, Cormorant
15aug15, Plywood Butt Joints, Paulsboat
1sep15, Navigator Cabins, Vireo
15sep15, Boxboat Stability 2, Philsboat
1oct15, Center of Gravity, Larsboat
15oct15, Hullforms Model, Jonsboat
1nov15, Port Aransas2015, Piccup Pram
15nov15, Hullforms Results, Caprice
1dec15, Sail Area Math, Ladybug
15dec15, Sailing For Nonsailors 1, Roar2
Mother of All Boat Links
The Boatbuilding Community
Kilburn's Power Skiff
Bruce Builds Roar
Rich builds AF2
JB Builds AF4
JB Builds Sportdory
Puddle Duck Website
Brian builds Roar2
Herb builds AF3
Herb builds RB42
Barry Builds Toto
Table of Contents