Jim Michalak's Boat Designs
1024 Merrill St, Lebanon, IL 62254
A page of boat designs and essays.
(15 October 2020) We discuss choosing a design. The 1 November issue will look at jiffy reefing a balanced lugsail.
NO MORE ORDERS UNTIL 2021, MAYBE ???
...an update from my blueprint paper supplier, Freedom Paper in Houston, is that they were unable to locate any coating material for Diazit process blueprinting. Not in the US or Asia. So it is kaput, no chance. I am going to investigate getting digital copies. I tried that about 15 years back and it wasn't going to work back then anyway. The digital copy was not usable. (At the same time I tried digital reduced size copies to replace the old optial reduced copies. That failed worse.) So we will see. The current plague isn't going to help speed things up.
THE BOOK IS OUT!
BOATBUILDING FOR BEGINNERS (AND BEYOND)
... is out now, written by me and edited by Garth Battista of Breakaway Books. You might find it at your bookstore. If not check it out at the....
ON LINE CATALOG OF MY PLANS...
...which can now be found at Duckworks Magazine. You order with a shopping cart set up and pay with credit cards or by Paypal. Then Duckworks sends me an email about the order and then I send the plans right from me to you.
This is the only example of my Davesboat design ever built as far as I know. Built to perfection by John Wolf. The design goes way back, from a cute sketch by a guy name Dave about sort of a slow minimal cabin power dory. My design was for outboard but John built it with an inboard 7.5 hp Volvo Penta Md5b. More photos to come.
1024 Merrill St,
Lebanon, IL 62254
Send $1 for info on 20 boats.
Choosing A Design
ALWAYS CHOOSE A BOAT FOR YOURSELF...
If there is one bit of advice I can give to the potential boat builder (or buyer) it is to always choose a boat for yourself, not for your family or your friends. Sound pretty selfish??
From my personal boat experience and especially from seeing many many boats at marinas I can tell you that no matter what the boat's size or style, about half of the boats in use have solo skippers and maybe a quarter have one extra crew member. The big boats at the marinas often, usually, couldn't go out because their skippers couldn't find enough crew. At one marina we had a group of a few dozen oldsters who all had their own big boats. They went sailing every Wednesday, but not each in his own boat. By grouping three or four in a boat they could all go sailing but of course only a fraction of their boats got wet. And if they hadn't been so organized their boats would have seen even less use.
We also had a lot of "family" boats in the harbor but I suppose on a good summer weekend about 10% of them actually went out with the family.
Here's the deal - not too many folks really want to experience tough yohoho sailing or challenging the elements in the way we see in the magazines. And when you choose a design to build you shouldn't have in mind one of those "charter in paradise" dreams. If you do and get a big sailboat with room to sleep six and standing headroom, etc. I'd say there is at least 90% chance that after the first year (month) you will not be using the boat regularly because you can't find a minimum crew. Yes, there are exceptions.
Not only will you end up with a boat you can't use but you might put a lot of pressure on loved ones who really don't want to be a regular part of that scene. I don't see how anyone has a right to force folks to be avid boaters.
(By the way, the makers of conventional powerboats can go to great lengths to keep everyone occupied in a comfortable way. They have big cushy seats with a drink holder for each hand. They have built in stereo systems and hot and cold running water. The potti problem hasn't really been solved in smaller boats but they try with potties crammed here and there. I saw a small pontoon boat at a dealer last year with sort of a large sofa in the stern. The salesman demonstrated that by lifting one end it stood up on the other end and became an outhouse! Getting Aunt Bea to use it is another problem. But these boats are sold as family entertainment and you might have to do similar things to keep the family involved.)
So here is how I think you should approach the problem. Always choose a boat so you can use it by yourself and in the way you want to use it.
MATCH YOUR BOAT TO YOUR WATERS...
Give some thought to getting a boat that matches your local waters. There was a racing sailboat at the harbor at Carlyle lake with an 11' draft. At the best of times half the lake was too shallow for it. If we had a dry spell it couldn't leave its slip.
Canoes are good in swamps and creeks with no current, bad in big open water. A good rowboat or kayak (with practice) can go into bigger waters and for long distance if it ain't too windy. Small sailboats are mostly for open lakes and inlets, useless in a river with current. Rivers with current usually mean a powerboat or a one way trip (downstream).
THE SIZE OF THINGS...
Little boats like Tween shown below can have their advantages. Tween weighs about 60 pounds and is easily cartopped and manhandled by one man. You can row two in it but sailing two adults is probably not a good idea. However if you want to sail two adults once or twice a year you can get away with it. These are cheap easy projects, very good for beginners. I always encourage a new builder to get started with a smaller project. You can practice with techniques and materials you might want for your larger dream. The small first project will almost never be wasted - even after you go to a larger boat you will use the tiny one again and again.
About in the same level of effort and cost are small canoes like Toto shown below. But the boating in a canoe can be a lot different. Toto will paddle (some training required) perhaps 30% faster than Tween will row (or faster) and might be more seaworthy. But it will be wetter and you will need to be more nimble to use it. You couldn't use it as a dink for a large boat because you can't climb into it safely from a larger boat, you seldom can take anyone large with you, and there is little room for the dog and groceries.
I haven't designed any elaborate kayaks because there are already so many good ones out there. They can be very fast and seaworthy in the right hands but I'm pretty sure it takes real training to develop the right hands. Me, I'm a poor swimmer and never had the desire to learn how to roll a capsized kayak, nor the desire to be trapped underneath one. So I kept my Toto open so I could fall out of it if it went over (which it has never done with me at the paddle). Remember: any small open boat is useless when swamped - you can't rescue the boat without help. Stay close to shore.
A STEP LARGER...
Let's now move up to a larger boat like the 11' Piccup Pram shown here with Vin Mansolillo and son. This boat is easily used solo and yet will easily handle Vin and son on a regular basis. Two big adults would max it out. Piccup stripped will weigh about 90 pounds and that is about the most you can cartop with any ease. You lift it to the cartop one end at a time so you never lift more than about 50 pounds. It's sort of interesting that when I draw something like this I have the weight limit always in mind and it seems like the customers seldom have that in mind. If you overbuilt a boat like this and add say 50 pounds (easy to do) I think you have negated the main reason for building it - weight light enough to cartop easily.
I've done quite a few boats in this size, all about 100 pounds stripped. It usually takes about four sheets of 1/4" plywood to make one this size, about twice the effort of the Tween or Toto, but this is a lot more boat. In fact to me this is a much more useful boat than the dink and I would only suggest a dink to someone with a problem storing a 12' boat. And boats like this have serious emergency flotation boxes which double as storage (provided the hatches are small and don't leak much) and self rescue is possible.
It's a stretch to do a small power boat like this. The boat can be made light enough, I think, but where to put the motor with its fuel, smells and leaks while you cartop the hull? In the trunk? Reader Ross Lillistone sent me a photo of how he does it in Australia. He mounts the motor on a standard bicycle carrier that attaches to the bumper. It looks like it works well, at least in a country with no thieves. Clearly not meant for big horsepower but neither is the little boat on the cartop.
If you have a pickup truck you will find that almost any of the cartop boats will slide nicely into the truck bed. It's easier than cartopping and you don't have to strip the boat out before loading. Here is Vin's Piccup in his pickup:
I've carried boats over 15' long in my short bed truck although that is pushing the envelop.
Rowing boats often can be cartopped very easily indeed because they can be built long and light. The same four sheets of plywood that make the 12' sailboat will make a 16' rowboat that weighs less than 100 pounds. You need to tie the ends of the boat to the car, especially the bow, and be aware of what high winds and passing semi trucks will do to the big boat on top of the little car. Here is the 15' Sportdory, a great cartop rowboat at about 75 pounds, fast and able:
I would argue that once you've decided to go over 100 pounds you should not make a 12' boat. You will find the heavy boat a real pain to cartop and will either get a trailer or stop boating. Once you get a trailer you should think about going to a 15' boat. Almost any car can pull an unballasted 15 footer on a trailer. The larger boat may cost about 50% more than the 12 footer but it will usually be twice as much boat - a good bargain. A 15 foot boat will usually take three adults with ease, or two adults and two kids. And yet it will be totally managable by a solo skipper. Here is one example in my AF3:
Then you might argue why stop at 15'? Why not go...
Here is the 20' AF2. Most likely it can take another adult or two compared to the smaller AF3. It takes fourteen sheets of plywood compared to AF3's eight. It can still be operated totally by one person with one warning. Smaller boats like AF3 can be recovered from a capsize when the solo skipper puts his weight on the leeboard. We don't know yet if the AF2 will do so. Somewhere in this size and weight range for a 20' boat the skipper's weight won't be sufficient to bring the capsized boat upright and that is why an unballasted boat in this size range can be a bit risky.
One solution has been to use the Bolger Birdwatcher system where the sides of the boat are built high and everyone including the skipper sits inside. The high sides make for great righting buoyancy and the crew weight down low on the bottom makes for a low cg to aid in righting. Plus the bottoms of these boats are usually heavily built to add to the ballast effect. These boats have proven to be self righting without ballast. Below is my own interpretation of this type, the Jewelbox.
I don't design much over 20' anymore except as a specialty. My advice to anyone who wants a conventional boat over 20' long is to look hard at the used factory boat market.
Unless you like wild daysailing and have lots of friends who like going fast and getting wet, any sailboat in this range should be ballasted. There have been so many good designs in this range built in fiberglass factories over the past decades that good used ones can be available for a song. Cherry Catalina 22's can sell for $5000 or less, complete with trailer and motor. You could never build anything like it for that. A lot of these boats were sold in the boating boom twenty years ago, used a few times and then placed in storage. Inspite of what you may have read in Wooden Boat, fiberglass boats aren't really effected by weather and usually these oldies only need maybe some new cushions and a scrubbing. The sun chalked surface is usually a cosmetic thing.
I do think there are two good reasons to build a boat in this range - reasons the production builders didn't really address. First is very shallow draft. The production boats that I can think of that featured really shallow draft might be the "Hen" series from Florida and Eddy and Duff's Shearwater and Dovekie. Some of the others feature fairly shallow draft but I can assure you that a boat that draws 6" of water is more versatile that one that draws 16" of water, at least where I live.
The second reason to build a boat in this range is for ease of stepping the sail rig to make it a true solo trailer boat. Here again the Hen and Eddy and Duff boats are the only two I can think of offhand that also meet this requirement. Some of the common trailer sailers like the McGregors actually have light stayed masts which look doable by a solo skipper, but the Catalina is not. I know the vendors of production boats would say something like, "you can rig the boat in an hour on the trailer. Isn't that great!" The answer is no. If you can't pull your boat off the highway and be sailing in 15 minutes you will miss any chance of impulse sailing with it. You will end up in an entire different kind of boating, either stuck with busy weekends or keeping your boat at a marina.
I've only had one boat in this range get built so far, Pete James' 24' Petesboat. Here is a photo of it in the background with brother Karl James' 19' Jewelbox in the foreground. You can see the advantages of these camping boats - pulled all the way up on shore so the the crew steps dry shod and the sail rigs dropped and stowed, but ready to go again at a minutes notice. There are no production boats like these.
Once you've decided how large a boat is needed, you will get into details like hull shape. In general the flat bottomed boats are the roomiest and the easiest to build. The more complex shapes, such as the multichine Piccup, are only slightly harder and more expensive to build and you shouldn't be afraid of them for those reasons. They are almost always better in rough water and often significantly better. They aren't as roomy.
Here is some guidance about using power on boats:
I know of no successful dual function power/rowing or power/paddling boats. The large deep stern needed by a power boat is death to a good rowing or paddle boat. If you think you are going to use a motor regularly then go with a straight power boat.
Any good electric power system will be as expensive as and be a lot heavier than a gasoline motor and will have a much more limited range. But they are excellent for limited waters and where total quiet is required or desired.
Motors and small sailboats don't get along too well because there is seldom room for a good motor installation on the stern (plus things can get tangled there). This is a very difficult problem that needs more study because using a straight sailboat can require a huge amount of patience. Remember that working sail disappeared as soon as reliable motors were invented. (When you watch the National Geographic TV shows you can see aboriginals in genuine dug out canoes zipping up and down with new large outboards on the sterns.) Almost any cabin sailboat you see is really a motor/sailer. The sails are for recreation and the motor actually gets you where you want to go. Bolger has always argued that people who want large sail boats would be better off with a good large powerboat towing a good racing dinghy.
JONSBOAT, POWER SKIFF, 16' X 5', 200 POUNDS EMPTY
Jonsboat is just a jonboat. But where I live that says a lot because most of the boats around here are jonboats and for a good reason. These things will float on dew if the motor is up. This one shows 640 pounds displacement with only 3" of draft. That should float the hull and a small motor and two men. The shape of the hull encourages fast speeds in smooth water and I'd say this one will plane with 10 hp at that weight, although "planing" is often in the eye of the beholder. I'd use a 9.9 hp motor on one of these myself to allow use on the many beautiful small lakes we have here that are wisely limited to 10 hp. The prototype was built by Greg Rinaca of Coldspring, Texas and his boat is shown above when first launched with a trolling motor. But here is another one finished about the same time by Chuck Leinweber of Harper, Texas:
In the photo of Chuck's boat you can see the wide open center that I prefer in my own personal boats. To keep the wide open boat structurally stiff I boxed in the bow, used a wide wale, and braced the aft corners.
I usually study the shapes of commercial welded aluminum jonboats. It's surprising to see the little touches the builders have worked into such a simple idea. I guess they make these things by the thousands and it is worth while to study the details. Anyway, Jonsboat is a plywood copy of a livery boat I saw turned upside down for the winter. What struck me about that hull was that its bottom was constant width from stem to stern even though the sides had flare and curvature. When I got home I figured out they did it and copied it. I don't know if it gives a superior shape in any way but the bottom of this boat is planked with two constant width sheets of plywood.
Greg Rinaca put a new 18 hp Nissan two cycle engine on his boat, Here is a photo of it:
The installation presented a few interesting thoughts. First I've been telling everyone to stick with 10 hp although it's well known that I'm a big chicken about these things. Greg reported no problems and a top speed of 26 mph. I think the Coast Guard would limit a hull like this to about 25 hp, the main factors being the length, width, flat bottom, and steering location. Second, if you look closely at the transom of Greg's boat you will see that he has built up the transom in the motor mount area about 2". When I designed Jonsboat I really didn't know much about motors except that there were short and long shaft motors. I thought the short ones needed 15" of transom depth and didn't really know about the long shafts. Jonsboat has a natural depth of about 17" so I left the transom on the drawing at 17" and did some hand waving in the drawing notes about scooping out or building up the transom to match the requirements of your motor.
I think the upshot of it all is that short shaft motors need 15" from the top of the mount to the bottom of the hull and long shaft motors need 20". There was a lot of discussion about where the "cavitation" plate, which is the small flat plate right above the propellor, should fall with respect to the hull. I asked some expert mechanics at a local boat dealer and they all swore on a stack of tech manuals that a high powered boat will not steer safely if the cavitation plate is below the bottom of the hull, the correct location being about 1/2" to 1" above the bottom. But Greg had the Nissan manual and it said the correct position is about 1" BELOW the bottom. Kilburn Adams has a new Yamaha and its manual says the same thing. So I guess small motors are different from big ones in that respect.
But it seems to be not all that critical, at least for the small motors. Greg ran his Jonsboat with the 18 hp Nissan with the original 17" transom for a while and measured the top speed as 26 mph. Then he raised the transom over 2" and got the same top speed!
There is nothing to building Jonsboat. There five sheets of plywood and I'm suggesting 1/2" for the bottom and 1/4" for everything else. It's all stuck together with glue and nails using no lofting or jigs. I always suggest glassing the chines for abrasion resistance but I've never glassed more than that on my own boats and haven't regretted it. The cost, mess, and added labor of glassing the hull that is out of the water is enormous. My pocketbook and patience won't stand it. Glassing the chines and bottom is a bit different because it won't show and fussy finishing is not required.
Plans for Jonsboat are $25.
Some of you may know that in addition to the one buck catalog which now contains 20 "done" boats, I offer another catalog of 20 unbuilt prototypes. The buck catalog has on its last page a list and brief description of the boats currently in the Catalog of Prototypes. That catalog also contains some articles that I wrote for Messing About In Boats and Boatbuilder magazines. The Catalog of Prototypes costs $3. The both together amount to 50 pages for $4, an offer you may have seen in Woodenboat ads. Payment must be in US funds. The banks here won't accept anything else. (I've got a little stash of foreign currency that I can admire but not spend.) I'm way too small for credit cards.
We have a Picara finished by Ken Giles, past Mayfly16 master, and into its trials. The hull was built by Vincent Lavender in Massachusetts. There have been other Picaras finished in the past but I never got a sailing report for them...
And the Vole in New York is Garth Battista's of www.breakawaybooks.com, printer of my book and Max's old outboard book and many other fine sports books. Beautiful job! Garth is using a small lug rig for sail, not the sharpie sprit sail shown on the plans, so I will continue to carry the design as a prototype boat. But he has used it extensively on his Bahamas trip towed behind his Cormorant. Sort of like having a compact car towed behind an RV.
And a Deansbox seen in Texas:
Another prototype Twister is well along:
A brave soul has started a Robbsboat. He has a builder's blog at http://tomsrobbsboat.blogspot.com. (OOPS! He found a mistake in the side bevels of bulkhead5, says 20 degrees but should be 10 degrees.) This boat has been sailed and is being tested. He has found the sail area a bit much for his area and is putting in serious reef points.
AN INDEX OF PAST ISSUES
THE WAY BACK ISSUES RETURN!
MANY THANKS TO CANADIAN READER GAETAN JETTE WHO NOT ONLY SAVED THEM FROM THE 1997 BEGINNING BUT ALSO PUT TOGETHER AN EXCELLENT INDEX PAGE TO SORT THEM OUT....
THE WAY BACK ISSUES
1nov19, Herb's OliveOyl 3, Shanteuse
15nov19, Herb's OliveOyl 4, Piccup
1dec19, Taped Seams, Ladybug
15dec19, Plywood Butt Joints, Sportdory
1jan20, Sail Area Math, Normsboat
15jan20, Trailering, Robote
1feb20, Bulkhead Bevels, Toto
15feb20, Cartopping, IMB
1mar20, Small Boat Rudders, AF4Breve
15mar20, Rudder Sink Weights, Scram Pram
1apr20, Two Totos, River Runner
15apr20, Water Ballast, Mayfly16
1may20, Water Ballast Details, Blobster
15may20, Mast Tabernacles, Laguna
1jun20, Underwater Boards, QT Skiff
15jun20, Capsize Lessons, Mixer
1jul20, Scarfing Lumber, Vireo14
15jul20, Lugsail Rigging, Vamp
1aug20, Prop Slip, Oracle
15aug20, Sharpie Sail Rigging, Cormorant
1sep20, Guessing At Weight, OliveOyl
15sep20, Prismatic Coefficient, Philsboat
1oct20, Figuring Displacement, Larsboat
Mother of All Boat Links
The Boatbuilding Community
Kilburn's Power Skiff
JB Builds AF4
JB Builds Sportdory
Puddle Duck Website
Brian builds Roar2
Herb builds AF3
Herb builds RB42
Barry Builds Toto
Table of Contents